1956 Previously,Blackjack The basic strategy is speculation and experience guess.
This year is also the "Four Horsemen" ─ Roger Baldwin (Roger Baldwin), Weibaikenti (Wilbert Cantey), Herb thmei Sergio (Herbert Maisel) and James McDermott (Jams McDermott) published 11 The paper, "blackjack best strategy." It also led blackjack strategy into the modern scientific analysis an important paper. (Dr. Edward Thorp published until 1962, "Beat the Dealer." The paper than It is about six years earlier.
When the army to play blackjack
It all started in 1953. The Four Horsemen are served in the US Army, stationed in Maryland, Aberdeen Proving Ground Bauer temperature, although in the army but they have a master's degree from Columbia University mathematics education, they face in the barracks with the other play with colleague Poker Brand, it was proposed to play blackjack, and then we would discuss the rules, Roger Baldwin was only know Casino Nine p.m. gambling regulations, the dealer must make up to 17:00 outs so far.
For him, the "news" (the dealer must be fully in accordance with the rules of outs) gave him the inspiration ─ ?? ─ because the rules are dead, should have the opportunity to go through the best strategy for mathematical analysis corresponds to the rule.
Roger Baldwin was calculated by hand a few rules, but he immediately knew the real blackjack strategy analysis is a big problem. He found Weibaikenti, it was the sergeant, hoping to give him the use of military computing the permissions.
Weibaikenti, had once wanted to become a priest and thus the seminary. But because he was too loved to play cards as well as play pool, was the seminary, "Please" out. Later he also concentrate on the study of mathematics and a master's degree, he Soon to join Roger Baldwin's plan, and hired Herb thmei Searle and James McDermott.
This Aberdeen Four Horsemen who spent a year and a half of free time, designed the best strategy to play blackjack out. Please note, it was no computer. In addition to the amazing head, they only have a calculator.
Blackjack best strategy
Finally in September 1956, they published 11 papers, "nine p.m. best strategy" published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association (American Statistical Association; ASA).
It shows the beginning of the paper, four kinds of casino necessary Game In (Blackjack, American drama dice, poker,Rotary table), Play blackjack bet is the most likely to be ignored gambling books, and no relevant mathematical and statistical analysis. And then explain how a mathematical equation based on the player via the hands of two cards, and the dealer hands of a card, calculate the best play.
"Blackjack best strategy" is admittedly a history of computing inspected blackjack strategy using precise mathematical.
In 1957, the Four Horsemen will extend their paper out of a book of 92 "Winning Blackjack" (Playing Blackjack to Win: A New Strategy for the Game of 21), this book proposes blackjack strategy Surprisingly accurate.
Recommend scoreboard practices mentioned in the book 88 pairs of 9 or 10 at the time, but a shock. (Now a pile of magic bag still !!)
However, the "Winning Blackjack," a book at the time did not attract the public's attention, until a few years later, Edward Thorp's book "Beat the Dealer" began, it attracted wide attention and popularity, and became the best-selling books.
"Winning nine p.m." Only a handful ?? and has sold several of the print. James McDermott later said he only received the book royalties $ 23 dollars.
Although many people did not notice their achievements, but from the point of view now, "nine p.m. winning" undoubtedly represents a turning point in the history of blackjack.
According to Arnold Schneider (blackjack writer and historian, is Hall of Famer), wrote: "Roger Baldwin (Roger Baldwin), Weibokenti (Wilbert Cantey), Herb thmei Searle ( Herbert Maisel) and James McDermott (Jams McDermott) This four giant blackjack strategy. Surely they are the vanguard of blackjack world. "
Elected to the Hall of Fame
The publication of "nine p.m. winning" book, The Four Horsemen of the nine p.m. lost interest and their fruition in the other areas. Weibokenti became government units researcher, Herbert thmei Salle University in Georgetown Professor of Computer Science, James McDermott at IBM as a senior executive.
In 2008, after four knights to change the world for half a century blackjack, blackjack world return to give glory they deserve.
Although the Blackjack Hall of Fame rules are selected each year can have only one new member, but may be considered as one of the Four Horsemen, and in the absence of objection under Blackjack Hall of Fame vote to become a new member in January 2008.
In a speech on the ceremony, Weibokenti said: "In all respects, we are able to explore mathematically nine p.m. world feel very honor."
Members of the Blackjack Hall of Fame is also a warm welcome to join the Four Horsemen, Stanford king said:. "They are the first to know how to play blackjack the world right person"
Al Act Blue 切斯科 added: "There is no Four Horsemen, we will not stand it today."
50th Anniversary Edition
August 2008, Cardoso Press (Cardoza publishing) published the 50th anniversary of "Winning Blackjack" commemorative edition, foreword written by Dr. Edward Thorp introduced relegated from the Arnold Schneider. As two considered the father of eleven cards, Dr. Thorpe is described in the preface: "Newton quote a phrase (Issac Newton) of saying, if I can see farther than others, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants 4. ʱ??