ʱ??Murphy's Lawʱ??School Kanamori Theorem"And"Peter Principle"And called the three Western culture of the twentieth century's most outstanding discovery.
Murphy's Law is not a stressed human error probability law, but explained in an occasional inevitability, we cite an example:
You pocket filled with a gold coin, for fear that others know and fear of loss, so every once in a while you will go to touch the pocket, to view the gold is not still, then your regular action attracted the attention of thieves, the ultimate was stolen. Even without being stolen by thieves, that always touch to touch your pocket finally been worn, gold coins fell out lost.
This explains the reason things happen the more afraid would happen, why? It happened because of fear, it will be very concerned about, the more focused attention, the more prone to making mistakes.
1,Matthew (Matthew Effect): Refers to the strong stronger and the weak weaker phenomenon, widely used in many fields of social psychology, education, finance and science, its name comes from the Bible, "the New Testament Gospel of Matthew" in a parable:. "Where , but also applied to him told him to unnecessary; not, even what he has will be taken from him. "" Matthew Effect "and" balanced way "inconsistent with" Pareto rule to "have at it with class. Natural law is very important.
2,Watch Theorem: Only a watch, you can know the time; have two or more than two watches and can not tell a person more accurate time, but will create chaos, will watch the people lose confidence in accurate time which is the famous. . Watch Law deeper meaning that: Everyone can not pick two different codes of conduct or values, or else his life and work will fall into chaos.
3,Not worth the Law: The most intuitive expression is: not worth doing, is worth doing well this law does not reflect the people a psychological, if a person is engaged in a self that is not worth a thing, they tend to hold cynical, perfunctory. trouble attitude. Not only the success rate is small, even if successful, it will not feel much of a sense of accomplishment.
4,Peter Principle (The Peter Principle): It is based on an analysis of hundreds of organizations concerned Peter incapable of failure in the instance and summarized out.The specific content is: "In a hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his incompetence status".Peter pointed out that each employee due to the work on the original score performed better job (competence), will be promoted to a higher-level positions; thereafter, if it continues it will further enhance the competency, until he can not reach the qualified jobs.Peter derived therefrom inference is that "each post will eventually be a worker can not do its work occupied.Hierarchical organization of most tasks has not been reached by incompetent staff completed classes."Every employee will eventually reach Peter Heights, where his promotion quotient (PQ) is zero.As for how to accelerate the upgrading to the highlands, there are two ways.First, it is above the "pull" that rely on nepotism and acquaintances pull from above; Second, is the self "push" that self-training and advancement, while the former is commonly used.
5,Zero-sum game principle: Zero-sum game, also known as zero-sum game, and relatively non-zero-sum game, is a concept of game theory, is a non-cooperative game, referring to the parties involved in the game, in strict competition, the proceeds of one necessarily implies the other losses, gains and losses on the parties to the game by adding the sum is always "zero".The possibility of cooperation the two sides does not exist.You can also say: your happiness is built on the suffering of others, both of exactly equal size, thus both leave no stone unturned to achieve the "beggar thy neighbor".Results of zero-sum game is to eat the other one, the other is the one obtained by the loss, the interests of the whole society and will not be an increase of one.
6,Washington co-law: A person perfunctory, two people passing the buck, three people then things are never the day.Somewhat similar to our "three boys" story.The strength of people's cooperation is not simple addition, but to much more subtle and complex.In interpersonal cooperation, assume that each person's energy is 1, then 10 individual energy may larger than 10, it may even be smaller than 1.Because people's cooperation is not static, it is more like the direction of different energy, promote each other when natural perceptibly, when the conflicting nothing.Cooperation is a problem, how cooperation is also a problem.Enterprise there are always people envy the achievements and outstanding performance of others, every day to find ways to carry out sabotage and suppress.If the companies do not put this person removed, over time, the organization will only contain each other under the group, there is no productivity "crab".Like this is Bonnie human law: "One person, one minute you can dig a hole, 60 people can not dig a hole for a second.ʱ??
I took a coin toss, the coin toss ten times, you might guess the 1989 times, ten times it may appear positive, or eighty-nine times positive, but if throwing thousands of times, you can only guess and half, reference odds, you will lose very large, hundreds of thousands of times, then there is the number of positive and negative as large, that is, law of large numbers. That is why the long losing bet.